Computers have been using electrical circuits to relay information for nearly the past century. In order for computing power to keep increasing at an exponential level, the switch to quantum computing may need to happen soon. Shrinking transistors is becoming increasingly harder to do and one day soon, will be impossible.
The way that quantum computing will blow modern computers out of the water, is that the bits (qubits) that they use to relay information, can be 1’s and 0’s at the same time (if you’re at all familiar with binary). The qubits are cooled to almost absolute zero and are then magnetically suspended. This allows the information to be selected at a much higher rate than the computers we have now.
A company called D-Wave Systems currently claims that they have actually made a quantum computer. It is still up for debate if their computer can actually perform at the exponential speeds that quantum computers are supposed to run at, but NASA and Google claim that their tests conclude the D-Wave 2x (pictured below) runs at a speed that is 100 million times faster than an average computer.
You may not need a quantum computer yet, but companies that need to process an impossibly large amount of information can possibly now do this in seconds, rather than hours or days.