The Kardashev Scale

Soviet astrophysicist, Nikolai Kardashev, introduced the Kardashev Scale in 1964. This scale is a prediction of what a civilization would go through to eventually become gods, essentially. This method has been criticized unsurprisingly, but even if it isn’t an accurate scale of what is to come for human civilization, it definitely gets the imagination going. There are three original steps that were thought up by Kardashev, but additional steps have been unofficially added that are very interesting.

Type 0 (unofficial):

This is where we are currently. This is a civilization that harnesses its energy from its home planet.

Type 1:

A civilization that is able to harness the energy needed to meet the demands of their population, from being in control of all energy of the home planet while even being able to control the weather, earthquakes, volcanoes, etc, while being able to harness all desired energy from our star.

Type 2:

dyson-sphere-artist-2
http://en.es-static.us/upl/2013/05/dyson-sphere-artist-2.jpg

Having the ability to create structures such as a “Dyson Sphere”, which would be capable of harnessing the all energy that a star would give off in its lifetime. It is speculated that a star was found last year that could have a Dyson Sphere around it, because a lot of the light that we should be seeing from the star isn’t reaching us.

Type 3:

A civilization capable of inhabiting an entire galaxy while also being able to harness all energy from it. They would be able to move planets and stars, harness energy from supernovae, and even create their own stars.

Type 4/5/6 (unofficial):

Step 4 typically is seen as a civilization that has essentially taken over the universe and can manipulate it at their will, while type 5 is where multiverses can be controlled and inhabited. In Stage 6, a civilization can live outside of time and space itself, becoming omnipotent.

To anyone that may find this scale as laughable, read up on the Allegory of the Cave. The idea presented by Plato, which tells a story of people inside of a cave, chained to a wall their whole lives. All they know that exists are themselves, and the shadows that move on the wall in front of them. This is all they know and is all they think exists. They are obviously ignorant to the fact that an entire outside world exists with things that they could not even imagine, which we live in every day. I believe we are living in our own cave to an extent. There is so much that we do not know about the universe, that dismissing any theory is irresponsible.

 

Sources:

The Kardashev Scale – Type I, II, III, IV & V Civilization

The KARDASHEV Scale (types 0 to VI)

http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/allegory.html

Graphene’s Use in Countless Future Applications

There is no possible way I could create one post with enough content that would do the potential of graphene justice, but this will be a look through a keyhole into the fascinating grouping of carbon atoms.

Graphene is a structure made from carbon atoms in a honeycomb pattern, very similar to what honeycombs made from bees looks like. It has been studied massively since the term itself was coined in 1987. Scientists just can’t seem to get enough of graphene and its potential for use in electronics, battery energy, solar energy, and much more. Not to mention it is 100 times stronger then the strongest steal. Other reasons it is so great to work with is that the honeycomb structure offers a lot of strength to the one atom thick layer, and it is extremely conductive.

graphene-head
http://www.extremetech.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/graphene-head.jpg

Above shows a representation of a layer of graphene.

With the great amount of forms carbon can make, along with providing the honeycomb structure, scientist have been able to actually fold the layer to create a tube of graphene called a carbon nanotube.

160380750
http://f.tqn.com/y/composite/1/W/n/4/2/160380750.jpg

So far, nanotubes can be made with a length that is 132,000,000 times longer than the tubes diameter. For comparison, if you enlarged a carbon nanotube to match the diameter of a skyscraper (300 feet), it would rise to a staggering 7.5 million miles up. The moon on average is only about 240,000 miles away from earth.

Nanotubes themselves are already being developed for use in almost every part of bicycles, large vessels, wind turbines, and a variety of sports gear. This list is┬áminiscule to what it will look like in the near future. Nanotubes are currently being researched and developed for use in acoustics, water treatment, radar absorption (stealth technology), hydrogen storage as a source of fuel, “paper batteries”, electrical circuits, tissue engineering inside the body, and much more. As you can see, this list is long as well as very diverse. Who knows how many different ways graphene will be used in the near future.

Sources:

http://www.graphenea.com/pages/graphene-uses-applications#.VyatMvkrLct

http://www.graphenea.com/pages/graphene#.Vyaet_krLcs

http://spaceplace.nasa.gov/moon-distance/en/